Demin Ilya Vyacheslavovich, Candidate of philosophy, associate professor, sub-department of philosophy and history, Samara State Aerospace University (34 Moskovskoye highway, Samara, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Bogdanova Nataliya Mihailovna, Postgraduate student, assistant, sub-department of methodology of sociological and marketing researches, Samara State University (1 Akademika Pavlova street, Samara, Russia), email@example.com
Background. Relevance of addressing to the Heidegger's philosophical heritage is associated with the situation in the field of modern (post-metaphysical) philosophy of history. Existential analytics of temporality and historicity of Dasein lays the foundation for a radically new, non-metaphysical, understanding of history and historicity. A decisive role in this new understanding of the history is played by the distinction between historicity (geschichtlich) and historical (historisch), between the bygone (gewesen) and the past (vergangen). The subject of the article is the M. Heidegger’s existential analytics of temporality. The purpose of the article is to clarify the relation between existential and temporal phenomena of the “past” and “bygone”.
Materials and methods. The methodological substantiation of the research was the M. Heidegger’s existential analytics of human existence. The specificity and at the same time the productivity of Heidegger’s approach in the field of philosophy of history consist in the fact that understanding of history as a process of change and development of an object in time established in the metaphysics is not denied, but it gets more original, existential and ontological understanding. Also the authors used the comparative historical method when comparing Heidegger’s and Sartre’s phenomenological concepts of the past.
Results. The article explicates two different types of correlation of human existence and historical past, and clarifies the relationship between them. The authors elicits the value of M. Heidegger’s distinction between the past (Vergangenheit) and the bygone (Gewesenheit) for modern (postmetaphysical) philosophy of history, compares Heidegger’s existential analytics with the concept of Nietzsche's “monumental history”.
Conclusions. Heidegger’s existential analytics knows two modes of interrelationship of a man with a historical event: it is an unauthentic mode in which the historical appears as the past, and an authentic one, in which the historical is opened as the historicity (which have come true and which is coming true). Both methods are rooted in existential constitution of Dasein.
past, bygone, event, history, historicity, Dasein, M. Heidegger, existence.
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